I recently watched part of a presentation on Youtube by Dr Michael Graziano concerning his ideas about consciousness (below). In the video at 8:07 he shows a graph which I find interesting. You’ll need to watch from the start of the video to understand this experiment though.
Dias & Ressler’s new paper which indicates that fear conditioned memories from male IVF donor mice can be inherited by both their children, as well as their grandchildren, even though they had been killed by the IVF harvesting procedure, some time before their offspring were even conceived.
Eric Nestler wanted to remove any possible contact by the defeated rodent fathers, with the impregnated female rodent, so used IVF. Comparing the results against defeated rodent fathers who conceived naturally. The offspring never meet their father in all the experiments.
Nestler assumed that if the transmission was really Epigenetic, (through the sperm of the rodent father) there would be no difference between the inheritance effect in IVF offspring, compared to naturally conceived offspring.
However, he found a big difference between the inheritance effect in IVF, compared to natural conception. The problem is he still found an inheritance effect in IVF, just more subdued. Indicating something much more complex is going on. Continue reading →
I know psychologists may define ‘competition‘ as an attempt to provide…
“an advantage to the individual at the expense of others”
…but are they right? I’m not convinced.
In the UK we are born into a world where we are told that competition is good, the ‘free market’ rules, and monopolies are bad. Competitive environments certainly seem to be productive environments where people may work very hard indeed. Continue reading →